- nephrotic syndrome inducing a hypercoagulable state
- invasion of the renal vein by renal cell carcinoma
It is often asymptomatic, but equally may present with haematuria, loin pain, palpable mass or a sudden worsening of renal function.
Treatment is with warfarin, anticoagulated to INR 2-3 for 3-6 months.
Follow me to battle 5.3....