It is diagnosed by DEXA scan:
- T to -1 SD = normal
- T -1 to -2.5 SD = osteopenia
- T below -2.5 SD = osteoporosis
Fracture risk is increased by 2x with each standard deviation of the T score.
Common fracture sites include:
- vertebrae and neck of femur = trabecular bone
- distal radius and humerus = cortical bone
Factors increasing the risk of OP include:
- being slim
- steroid use
- early menopause
- primary biliary sclerosis
Primary prevention of OP is with alendronate.
Now to the final battle of the day, osteogenesis imperfecta